Romania is situated at the crossing point between the 45 degrees northern latitude parallel and the 25 degrees eastern longitude meridian.
Situated in the middle of the European continent, Romania has a geographical position marked by three natural elements: the Carpathians, the Danube and the Black Sea. Each element influenced Romania’s natural characteristics as well as its social and economical evolution.
The varied relief is concentric, losing altitude at its ages. In the middle of the country there is the Central Transylvanian Basin surrounded by The Carpathian Mountains (Eastern, Southern, Western)
Their exterior sides sweeten into hills and plateaus: The SubCarpathian Hills, the Moldavian Plateau, The Getic plateau and the Western Hills, the Dobrogea Plateau and the Danube Delta. Each of the 3 major relief forms covers 1/3 of the country surface.
Romania’s climate is moderate continental – temperate as it is the area of transition from the ocean temperate climate of the Atlantic Europe and the highly continental climate of Eastern Europe. South-western part is also influenced by the mild Mediterranean climate.
Flowing waters represent 98% of Danube’s hydrographic basin. The main rivers in the west of the country are Tisa’s affluents: The Somes, The Cris Repede, The Cris Negru, The Cris Alb, The Mures and The Bega. The Danube’s most important direct affluents are the Timis, the Cerna, the Jiu, the Olt, the Arges, the Ialomita, the Siret and the Prut.
Lakes represent 1,1 of the country’s surface and can be found everywhere from the seashore to the mounain peaks. The sea coast has lagoons(Razim-Sinoe) and the sea limans (Tasaul, Techirgiorl, Mangalia).There are ice-lakesd in the mountains at over 2000 m altitude(Bucura, Zanoaga, Bâlea, Gâlcescu), a vulcanic lake ( Sfânta-Ana), a natural dam lake (Lacu Rosu) numerous acumulation lakes for hydroelectric power stations (Vidraru,Vidra, Izvorul Muntelui, Portile de fier).
The plain and hillz regions have ponds, fluvial limans, steppe lakes etc.
Romania has mineral and subterane waters especially in mounaint and hill areas. Thermal waters can be found at Baile Herculane, Geoagiu and Baile Felix.
Vegetation is represented by deciduous and coniferous forests (in mountain and hill regions), steppe and silvosteppe (plains and lower Eastern and South-Eastern hills and plateaus) and alpine area with bushes and herbs, at over 1800 m altitude. The fauna in deciduous forests is represented by deer, wild boars, wolves, foxes, martens and numerous birds: woodpeckers, the chaffinch, the blackbird, the cuckoo while in the coniferous forests there are: bears, lynxes, stags, the cappercaille. The steppe and the silvosteppe are characterized by the presence of the rodents (the harvest mouse, the ground squirrel, the hamster, the rabbit etc.) and birds: skylark, the quail, the partridge and the bustard. In the alpine area there are the chamois and the mountain eagle.
In the meadows and the Danube Delta areas the vegetation is formed by water plants: the cane, the bulrush, the reed, the willow tree, the poplar. The Delta’s is varied 110 fish species, 280 bird species (most of them migrating) and mammals.
The Danube Delta was declared reservation of the biosphere.
Romanian soils are fertile especially in plains and they are called cernosioms.
In this area the Romanian people was born almost 2 millenniums ago. Nowadays together with the Romanians there are other nationalities: Hungarians, Rromani, Germans, Ukrainians, Arabians, Bulgarians, Turks, Tartars etc.
Rural settlements represent about 45% of the country’s population. They look according to the relief forms they are settled in.
Very distantly disposed settlements in the mountains, distantly disposed in the hills and plateau areas dense in plain areas. Mountain villages are smaller in number of inhabitants (under 500 inhabitants), for plain villages there is a high (1400-4000) or very high (over 4000) number of inhabitants. The main activity of the villagers is agriculture.
The smallest administrative division is the commune made up of one or more villages.
The almost 2 000000 inhabitants and it is the main political, administrative industrial, commercial and cultural centre. It lies in Southern part of Romania and the river Dambovita crosses it. Big cities with over 300000 inhabitants are: Constanta, situated on the sea-coast, the main sea harbor; Iasi in the North-East; Timisoara in the West; Cluj-Napoca in the Central-Northern part; Brasov an industrial and tourist centre in the mountain are; Galati the biggest harbor of the Danube in the country; Craiova, industrial centre in the South-West.
-deciduous and coniferous forests, representing 27% of country’s surface;
-the power of the flowing waters especially in the mountain regions;
-natural lawns used as grass land and hay fields;
-ferrous and non-ferrous ores, copper, lead, gold, silver, bauxite;
-oil and natural gases;
-fertile soils from the lower regions.
The economy is based on private and foreign investments. The representative economies are:
-energetic, based on thermo power stations with solid fuels;
-iron industry (with the most important center Galati: Sidex-Mittal Steel);
-chemical (paper and cellulose, paint, chloride and sodium);
-wood processing (timber furniture);
-construction materials (cements, lime, plaster);
-light (textile, shoes, clothing);
-alimentary (milk products, wine, meat and bread products);
The main plants grown in Romania are cereal (corn, rice rye), industrial plants (flex, sun-flower, sugar beet), potatoes, leguminous plants for seeds (peas, beans), vegetables (tomatoes, union, peppers), fruit trees (apples, plum, apricots, cherry trees), grazing plants (clover). We raise: bovines, ovines, porcines, fowls, horses.
Tourism is on economic domain with a high development potential, not yet fully exploited. The most attractive tourist regions are:
-Maramures and Bucovina, for their architectural monuments, churches, monasteries;
-The Prahova Valley- The Bucegi mountains- The Rucar-Bran passage may, for its great mountain panorama, its natural monuments, possibilities of practicing winter sports, agro-tourism.
-Danube Delta, for the variety of vegetation and fauna, fishing;
-The Black Sea with its seaside resorts: Mamaia, Eforie-North, Eforie-South, Olimp, Neptun, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Techirghiol and others
-Balneary and climatic resorts: Baile Herculane, Baile Felix, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Sovata, Slanic-Prahova, Slanic-Moldova, Vatra Dornei and others
The transport infrastructure is at the moment being developed and modernized.
The country’s territory is crossed by some important European roads: the E60, E70, E85.
Highways: Bucharest-Pitesti; Bucharest-Constanta (The Sun Highway).